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Literature Review


In a 2007 report by Jobs for the Future, it was concluded that the United States has a very long way to go to eliminate social disparities in degree production to meet the demand for higher skills and knowledge and remain competitive internationally. Closing the gaps between various historically disadvantaged groups would require that the bachelor‟s and associate‟s degree production be increased by nearly 37 percent. The achievement of this goal is not possible without catering for the special needs of first-generation students. These students represent the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic groups that are currently disadvantaged. The goals for the higher education system have been set, now it is time for significant efforts to be made in understanding and solving the problems that are faced by first-generation students (Handel & Montoya).